In India Independence day have their own identity. And it’s known as a national holiday celebrated every year of 15th August. In India Independence Day marks as the end of British rule in 1947. And also marks as the anniversary of the partition of the subcontinent of two countries. India&Pakistan.
HISTORY It’s said that in 1929 at Lahore session of the Indian National Congress, the purna swaraj declaration or known as the declaration of the Independence of India. And on 26 January 1930 was declared as Independence. At that time congress called on people to pledge themself.
ALL INDIA MUSLIM LEAGUE Well everyone knows that all India Muslim League was founded by the ALL INDIA MUHAMMAD EDUCATIONAL CONFERENCE at Decca in 1906.
The Muslim league played a big role in the partition between Pakistan and Indian Subcontinent HOW INDIA CELEBRATED INDEPENDENCE DAY According to our resources, our first Prime Minister Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru hosted an Indian National flag above the Lahori Gate of Red Fort in New Delhi.
Well on this day all India states observed an Independence Day conducting with hosting a flag, parades, and cultural events also organized by every school and college.
PARTITION OF INDIA.
Viscous Louis Mountabaated which is known as the last Governor of India on 3 June 1947 which they announced the partition of India with British and Pakistan. With the Act of 1947 at 11:57 on 14th August 1947, Pakistan declared a separate nation.
Then at 12:02 A.M. on 15 August India Becomes sovereignty and Republic Nation. But in 1949 India took’s decision to remain in Commonwealth. Violent clashes between Hindus, Sikhs, and Muslims followed.
Prime Minister Nehru and deputy prime minister Sardar Vallabhai Patel invited Mountbatten to continue as Governor-General of India during the period of transition.
He was replaced in June 1948 by Chakravarti Rajagopalachari. Patel took on the responsibility for bringing 565 princely states into the Union of India, steering efforts by his “iron fist in a velvet glove” policies, exemplified by the use of military force to integrate Junagadh and Hyderabad State into India (Operation Polo). On the other hand, Nehru kept the issue of Kashmir in his hands.
The Constituent Assembly, headed by the prominent lawyer, reformer, and Dalit leader, B.R. Ambedkar was tasked with creating the constitution of free India.
The Constituent Assembly completed the work of drafting the constitution on 26 November 1949; on 26 January 1950, the Republic Of India was officially proclaimed.
The Constituent Assembly elected Rajendra Prasad was the first President of India, taking over from Governor General Rajgopalachari. Subsequently, the French ceded Chandernagore in 1951, and Pondichéry and its remaining Indian colonies by 1954.
Indian troops invaded and annexed Goa and Portugal’s other Indian enclaves in 1961, and Sikkim voted to join the Indian Union in 1975 after the Indian Victory Of China in Nathu La and Cho La.
GANDHI REACHED IN INDIA.
After completing the law from South Africa. He came back to India. Gandhi had perfected the concept of satyagraha. In January 1914 (well before the First World War began) Gandhi was successful.
The legislation against Indians was repealed and all Indian political prisoners were released by General Jan Smuts. Gandhi accomplished this through extensive use of non-violent protests, such as boycotting, protest marching, and fasting by him and his followers.
Gandhi returned to India on 9 January 1915, and initially entered the political fray not with calls for a nation-state, but in support of the unified commerce-oriented territory that the Congress Party had been asking for. Gandhi believed that the industrial development and educational development that the Europeans had brought were long required to alleviate many of India’s chronic problems.
Gopal Krishna Gokhale, a veteran Congressman, and Indian leader became Gandhi’s mentor. Gandhi’s ideas and strategies of non-violent civil disobedience initially appeared impractical to some Indians and their Congress leaders.
In the Mahatma’s own words, “civil disobedience is civil breach of immoral statutory enactments.” It had to be carried out non-violently by withdrawing co-operation with the corrupt state. Gandhi had great respect for Lokmanya Tilak. His programs were all inspired by Tilak’s “Chatusutri” program.
The positive impact of reform was seriously undermined in 1919 by the Rowlatt Act, named after the recommendations made the previous year to the Imperial Legislative Council by the Rowlatt Committee. The commission was set up to look into the war-time conspiracies by the nationalist organizations and recommend measures to deal with the problem in the post-war period. Rowlatt recommended the extension of the war-time powers of the Defence of India act into the post-war period. The war-time act had vested the Viceroy’s government with extraordinary powers to quell sedition by silencing the press, detaining political activists without trial, and arresting any individuals suspected of sedition or treason without a warrant. It was increasingly reviled within India due to widespread and indiscriminate use. Many popular leaders, including Annie Besant and Ali brothers, had been detained. The Rowlatt Act was, therefore, passed in the face of universal opposition among the (non-official) Indian members in the Viceroy’s council. The extension of the act drew widespread critical opposition. A nationwide cessation of work (hartal) was called, marking the beginning of widespread, although not nationwide, popular discontent. The agitation unleashed by the acts led to British attacks on demonstrators, culminating on 13 April 1919, in the Jalliwala Bagh Massacre (also known as the Amritsar Massacre) in Amritsar, Punjab. The British military commander, Brigadier-General Reginald Dyer, blocked the main, and only entrance, and ordered his soldiers to fire into an unarmed and unsuspecting crowd of some 15,000 men, women, and children. They had assembled peacefully at Jallianwala Bagh, a walled courtyard, but Dyer had wanted to execute the imposed ban on all meetings and proposed to teach all Indians a lesson the harsher way.A total of 1,651 rounds were fired, killing 379 people (according to an official British commission; Indian officials’ estimates ranged as high as 1,499 and wounding 1,137 in the massacre.) Dyer was forced to retire but was hailed as a hero in Britain, demonstrating to Indian nationalists that the Empire was beholden to public opinion in Britain, but not in India. The episode dissolved wartime hopes of home rule and goodwill and opened a rift that could not be bridged short of complete self-rule
QUIT INDIA MOVEMENT
This is the most famous movement which is lead by Mahatma Gandhi. It was held on 8th August 1947. In this movement, he said to the teachers to leave the jobs and others to leave their respective jobs. Due to his effects, even everyone leaves their jobs and join the movement.
At the outbreak of war, the Congress Party had during the Wardha meeting of the working-committee in September 1939, passed a resolution conditionally supporting the fight against fascism but were rebuffed when they asked for self-rule in return.
In March 1942, faced with an increasingly dissatisfied sub-continent only reluctantly participating in the war, and deteriorations in the war situation in Europe and South East Asia, and with growing dissatisfactions among Indian troops- especially in Europe- and among the civilian population in the sub-continent, the British government sent a delegation to India under Stafford Crisps, in what came to be known as the Cripps’ Mission.
The purpose of the mission was to negotiate with the Indian National Congress a deal to obtain total co-operation during the war, in return of progressive devolution and distribution of power from the crown and the Viceroy to elected Indian legislature.
However, the talks failed, having failed to address the key demand of a timeframe towards self-government, and of the definition of the powers to be relinquished, essentially portraying an offer of limited dominion-status that was wholly unacceptable to the Indian movement.
To force the British Raj to meet its demands and to obtain definitive word on total self-rule, the Congress took the decision to launch the Quit India Movement.
The aim of the movement was to force the British Government to the negotiating table by holding the Allied war effort hostage. The call for determined but passive resistance that signified the certitude that Gandhi foresaw for the movement is best described by his call to Do or Die, issued on 8 August at the Gowalia Tank Maidan in Bombay, since renamed August Kranti Maidan (August Revolution Ground).
However, almost the entire Congress leadership, and not merely at the national level, was put into confinement less than 24 hours after Gandhi’s speech, and the greater number of the Congress was to spend the rest of the war in jail.
On 8 August 1942, the Quit India resolution was passed at the Mumbai session of the All India Congress Committee (AICC). The draft proposed that if the British did not accede to the demands, a massive Civil Disobedience would be launched. However, it was an extremely controversial decision. At Gowalia Tank, Mumbai, Gandhi urged Indians to follow non-violent civil disobedience.
Gandhi told the masses to act as citizens of a sovereign nation and not to follow the orders of the British. The British, already alarmed by the advance of the Japanese army to the India–Burma border, responded the next day by imprisoning Gandhi at the Aga Khan Palace in Pune.
The Congress Party’s Working Committee or national leadership was arrested all together and imprisoned at the Ahmednagar Fort. They also banned the party altogether. All the major leaders of the INC were arrested and detained.
As the masses were leaderless the protest took a violent turn. Large-scale protests and demonstrations were held all over the country. Workers remained absent en masse and strikes were called. The movement also saw widespread acts of sabotage, Indian under-ground organization carried out bomb attacks on allied supply convoys, government buildings were set on fire, electricity lines were disconnected and transport and communication lines were severed.
The disruptions were under control in a few weeks and had little impact on the war effort. The movement soon became a leaderless act of defiance, with a number of acts that deviated from Gandhi’s principle of non-violence. In large parts of the country, the local underground organizations took over the movement. However, by 1943, Quit India had petered out.
All the other major parties rejected the Quit India plan, and most cooperated closely with the British, as did the princely states, the civil service, and the police.
The Muslim League supported the Raj and grew rapidly in membership, and in influence with the British.
There was opposition to the Quit India Movement from several political quarters who were fighting for Indian self-rule. Hindu nationalist parties like the Hindu Mahasabha openly opposed the call and boycotted the Quit India Movement.
Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, the president of the Hindu Mahasabha at that time, even went to the extent of writing a letter titled “Stick to your Posts”, in which he instructed Hindu Sabhaites who happened to be “members of municipalities, local bodies, legislatures or those serving in the army…to stick to their posts” across the country, and not to join the Quit India Movement at any cost.
The other Hindu nationalist organization and Mahasabha affiliate Rashtriya Samaj Sewak Sangh(RSS) had a tradition of keeping aloof from the anti-British Indian self-rule movement since its founding by K.B. Hadegwar in 1925. In 1942, the RSS, under M.S. Golwalakar completely abstained from joining in the Quit India Movement as well. The Bombay government (British) appreciated the RSS as such, by noting that,
The Sangh has scrupulously kept itself within the law, and in particular, has refrained from taking part in the disturbances that broke out in August 1942.
The British Government stated that the RSS was not at all supporting any civil disobedience against them, and as such their other political activities(even if objectionable) can be overlooked.
Further, the British Government also asserted that at Sangh meetings organized during the times of anti-British movements started and fought by the Indian National Congress,
Speakers urged the Sangh members to keep aloof from the congress movement and these instructions were generally observed.
As such, the British government did not crack down on the RSS and Hindu Mahasabha at all.
The RSS head (sarsanghchalak) during that time, M.S. Golwalkar later openly admitted to the fact that the RSS did not participate in the Quit India Movement.
However, such an attitude during the Indian independence movement also led to the Sangh being viewed with distrust and anger, both by the general Indian public, as well as certain members of the organization itself. In Golwalkar’s own words,
In 1942 also, there was a strong sentiment in the hearts of many. At that time too, the routine work of the Sangh continued. Sangh decided not to do anything directly. ‘Sangh is the organization of inactive people, their talks have no substance’ was the opinion uttered not only by outsiders but also our own swayamsevaks
In 1947 India remain in the commonwealth and became relations between India and the USA more friendly. Even in 2010 Prime Minister Cameron describe Indian-Britisher’s relation as new “Special Relations”.
In the above para, there are some leaders who are fought for Independence of India lets Check:-
- Mangal Pandey.
- Lala Lajpat Rai.
- Ram Mohan Lohia.
- Bhagat Singh.
- Rani Laxmi Bai.
- Rash Behari Bose.
- Ram Prasad Bisil.
- Mahadev Govind Ranade.
- Shivram Rajguru.
- Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad.
- Mahatma Gandhi.
- Moti Lal Nehru.
- Subash Chandra Bose.
- Ram Singh Kuka.
- Sardar Vallabhai Patel.
- Bipin Chandra Pal
- Chandra Shekhar Azad.
ROLE OF FREEDOM FIGHTERS. Our Indian freedom fighters played an important role in getting freedom from the Britishers. The revolt of 1857 was the first known war of Independence day.
The Hindu and Muslims sepoy(Here sepoy means soldiers) together began this revolt. Mangal Pandey, Rani Laxmi Bai, Nana Sahib, Bahadur Shah Zafar, Nana Sahib, and Tantya Tope are some leaders who are actively took participated in this revolt.
Mangal Pandey is known as the hero of this revolt because he played a role for the beginning of this revolt for Britishers. Rani Laxmi Bai is also known as the considered the symbol of resistance of Britishers’ rule and known as the leading figures of rebels of 1857.
Subhash Chandra Bose is also known as the leader in the freedom struggle for India. He has founded the National Indian Army which fought for British rules within the country. With the help of Japan and Axis forces in World War 2nd. He formed forward bloc.
Since our freedom fighters played a major role in getting Independence from the Britishers. They put their own lives on the risk and even lose their lives. With their efforts, Our India got Independence on 15th August 1947. Mahatma Gandhi is known as the considered to play a dynamic role for Independence and Known as the father of nation.
Dr. Rajendra Prasad becomes the first President of the Republic of India. Jawahar Lal Nehru Become the first Prime Minister of Independent country. Sardar Vallabhai becomes the first deputy prime minister and Dr. Bheem Rao Ambedkar became the first architecture of the Indian Constitution.
After Independence India became faster economically and culturally also. Doing faster progress in every sector. This is Just due to our freedom fighters’ sacrifices. Now India is known as the Democratic Republic the free air which we are surviving is just because of our freedom fighters.
CONCLUSION:- In the above para you understand how our freedom fighters give their leisure life to get freedom from the Britishers.
I hope you like my today topic.